Each of us at least once in his life donated blood for analysis and received a piece of paper on his hands with letters, numbers and units of measure. Then the doctor, looking at the results, announced: “You are healthy” or “You are sick”. But you yourself, how many did not consider incomprehensible badges, did not understand anything. In fact, everything is not so complicated. Let’s try to learn the language of our blood.
A general blood test is taken from the finger and serves to determine whether a person actually has blood diseases and whether any inflammatory process is occurring in the body. Blood is placed in a special analyzer, which gives the results. What will the letters and numbers on the form mean?
RBC These letters denote red blood cells – red blood cells. One milliliter of blood should contain from 3.8 to 5.8 million red blood cells. If there are fewer, then this is a sign of anemia. And therefore, the doctor needs to look at the following indicator – hemoglobin – a protein contained in red blood cells. Hemoglobin is indicated by the letters HGB. Continue reading
Millions of microorganisms live in our body. And not all of them are peace-loving. How to recognize enemies invisible to the eyes, especially when it comes to pathogens of dangerous diseases? DNA level diagnostics come to the rescue. The results of the analysis can be found already 3-4 hours after treatment. For the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is based on the identification of the species of any living organism, the American scientist Carrie Mullys was awarded the Nobel Prize.
In the 70s of the twentieth century, enzymes were discovered that break down DNA at specific points. Researchers have the opportunity to “cut” DNA into shorter and more stable fragments.
After this, a new discovery followed: scientists “taught” DNA to copy itself and build to such sizes that it is easy to identify. In fact, this made it possible to identify any object of interest by the selected DNA fragment: here is the DNA of the common cold pathogen, this is staphylococcus, this is the herpes virus. Continue reading