WHO authorized to declare: fever spreading rapidly
According to WHO Director-General Margaret Chen, the spread of fever is faster than efforts to combat it. Chen described the outbreak as “the largest in history.” The director also noted that cases of virus infection occur not only in remote rural areas, but also in densely populated cities.
Ebol River in Zaire
A meeting of the WHO emergency committee to discuss the risk of spreading fever was scheduled for 6 August. It was previously reported that the World Health Organization intends to spend $ 100 million to combat Ebola, which has already killed more than 700 people in West Africa. Another outbreak of the disease began in Guinea in February this year. Later, the epidemic moved to neighboring countries.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever (English Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever, EHF, lat. Ebola febris haemorrhagica) – an acute viral highly contagious disease caused by the Ebola virus. A rare but extremely dangerous disease with a mortality rate of up to 90%. There is currently no cure or vaccine for Ebola. It affects humans, some primates, as well as pigs.
For the first time, the Ebola virus was identified in the equatorial province of Sudan and the surrounding areas of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) in 1976. In Sudan, 284 people fell ill, 151 of them died. In Zaire, 318 (280 died). The virus was isolated in the Ebola River region of Zaire. This gave the name to the virus.
Outbreaks occur in the Congo and Uganda (Central Africa) every few years. For example, in July 2012, 14 people died in Uganda as a result of a virus infection. The major Ebola epidemic in West Africa (Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia) from February 2014 to August 6 already claimed the lives of 932 people, infected more than 1.7 thousand people. Single patients flew from West Africa to other countries: Nigeria, USA, England.
Two deaths in Russia
In Russia, two cases of death from Ebola were recorded:
In 1996, a laboratory assistant at the Virology Center of the Research Institute of Microbiology of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense in Sergiev Posad died, who contracted the Ebola virus through negligence, pricking her finger when she injected rabbits.
On May 19, 2004, Antonina Presnyakova, a 46-year-old senior laboratory assistant at the Department of Highly Viral Infections of the Research Institute of Molecular Biology of the Vector State Scientific Center for Virology and Biotechnology (Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Region), died of Ebola. It was found that on May 5, 2004, having injected experimental guinea pigs infected with the Ebola virus, the laboratory assistant began to put a cap on the needle of the syringe – at that moment her hand trembled, the needle pierced two pairs of rubber gloves and pierced the skin on the left palm.
The infectivity index is 95%.
According to its morphological properties, the virus coincides with the Marburgvirus (Marburgvirus), but differs in antigenic terms. Both of these viruses belong to the filovirus family. The Ebola virus is divided into five subtypes: Sudan, Zaire, Cote d’Ivoire, Reston, and Bundibugio. A person is affected by 4 subtypes. The Reston subtype is characterized by an asymptomatic course. Natural reservoirs of the virus are believed to be found in equatorial African forests.
The contagiousness index (contagiousness) reaches 95%. The transmission of the virus occurs through the mucous membranes, as well as microtrauma of the skin, entering the blood and lymph of both animals and humans. There is an unconfirmed version that the main carriers of the virus are “large fruit-eating bats.”
Funeral rituals, in which there is direct contact with the body of the deceased, can play a significant role in the spread of Ebola. The virus is released from patients within three weeks. Transmission from gorillas, chimpanzees, dukers is documented. Frequent infection of medical workers from patients through close contact without proper protection.
The gates of infection are the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and skin microtraumas. In place of the gate, no visible changes are observed.
But a light course is also possible.
Characterized by a rapid generalization of infection with the development of general intoxication and DIC. In general, pathogenesis is similar to other hemorrhagic fevers, differing from them only in the rate of development. In areas of endemicity, an examination of 7% of the population revealed antibodies to the Ebola virus. It can be assumed that a mild, or even asymptomatic, course of the disease is possible. There is also information about the possibility of contactless infection. For the first time, Canadian scientists were able to record the contactless transmission of the Ebola virus in animal experiments, the study was conducted by a group of specialists led by Gary Cobinger from the University of Manitoba.
The incubation period is from two to 21 days. Clinical symptoms are similar to Marburg fever. The different severity of the disease and the frequency of deaths during epidemic outbreaks in different regions are associated with biological ones.