Millions of microorganisms live in our body. And not all of them are peace-loving. How to recognize enemies invisible to the eyes, especially when it comes to pathogens of dangerous diseases? DNA level diagnostics come to the rescue. The results of the analysis can be found already 3-4 hours after treatment. For the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is based on the identification of the species of any living organism, the American scientist Carrie Mullys was awarded the Nobel Prize.
In the 70s of the twentieth century, enzymes were discovered that break down DNA at specific points. Researchers have the opportunity to “cut” DNA into shorter and more stable fragments.
After this, a new discovery followed: scientists “taught” DNA to copy itself and build to such sizes that it is easy to identify. In fact, this made it possible to identify any object of interest by the selected DNA fragment: here is the DNA of the common cold pathogen, this is staphylococcus, this is the herpes virus. Continue reading
Surely, each of us thinks that the condition and appearance of the hair directly depends on the way they are treated and a number of third-party factors. With a thorough study, it becomes known that, in combination with other symptoms, which we most often do not combine, hair becomes a litmus test that successfully and clearly warns of problems within the body. In this article we will discuss the most popular problems associated with hair, as well as what diseases they can signal.
1. Dull and dry hair
The very first and telling reason why hair loses its healthy shine is improper care. Also, frequent staining and the use of heating devices (curling iron, hair dryer, straightener) can lead to this. In addition, the hair loses its radiance and becomes dry in autumn and winter, when there is an acute question of a lack of vitamins and other useful substances in the body. The above symptom may indicate a lack of selenium, phosphorus and sulfur. Continue reading
Kalman syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic disease in humans. It is determined by the delay, the absence of signs of puberty in combination with the absence or violation of the sense of smell.
Diagnosis of the syndrome is often difficult, since up to adolescence in a child, symptoms may be unexpressed or absent altogether. The absence of pubertal changes that are detected by visual examination is important in diagnosing the patient’s condition. In addition, other diagnostic tests are performed to detect, first of all, decreased smell, genetic mutations or structural disorders of the endocrine glands that can cause similar symptoms.
The most distinctive feature that usually prompts patients to seek medical attention is a partial or complete absence of puberty. Men may report symptoms such as decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased muscle mass, and decreased aggressiveness. Continue reading